SLIDE SHOWS AND IMAGE GALLERIES

Vernal pools in a variety of habitats and different seasons.

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MarthasVineyard-1
174-mon
vp-M-15
vp-TurnersFalls_MA
VP-LW-rocky
vp-012-wet2-facing-N
MMNHP-SmallPool-LPK
vp-PlumIsland
vp-PlumIsland-Newburyport-1
vp-Barnstabel-FowlTd
vp-Leyden-farm
VP-Leyden_Ag_field
008-vp

Isolated pool in a hardwood forest.

CHAT-1

A pool in a deep depression with buttonbush shrubs in a shallower area in the center. The overstory is pitch pine as is typical of many areas of Cape Cod. Chatham, MA, May 2005.

York2

Pool with hummocks of red maple and hemlock. During the spring melt, water flows through this area from a series of pools at varying elevations. The open area is that of the flowing water. After the spring flow, each of the pools becomes isolated. York, ME, April 2007.

024-vp
York-1

Pool with hummocks of red maple and hemlock. This is the same pool as in the previous image. The pool is about two feet deep and used by mole salamanders and many invertebrates. York, ME, May 2007

TRURO-1
M-10maybe
Ley-lg-6
LenaPark-NorthJudson_IN
B122-wet
B122-dry
CACO-Kuhn

A typical Cape Cod pool. Heavy runoff from a three plus inch coastal storm has muddied the water. Wellfleet, MA, May 2006.

BSF-301
BSF-301-Middleton
BARN-1
BARN-1

Coastal pool in sandy area. Fowler's toads were calling from the edges of the pool. Barnstable, MA, May 2005.

Ley-lg-6

Pool in depression between two hills with dense overstory of hemlocks. It looks shallow but is actually 2-3 feet of water and leaf litter with only six inches of clear water at the surface. Amphibian eggs are laid in the upper open water. Hatched larvae disappear into the muck. This pool is very shaded and quite cool. Breeding by wood frogs and mole salamanders does not take place until late April or early May. Leyden, MA, May 2003.

CACO-Kuhn
Leyden_MA-VernalPool
004-vp
vp-Maynard-IMG_5944a
005-vp
vp-wall-P1000371-BOX157-089-100405
M-11

Depression in low area in hardwood forest. The stone fence is along a property line. When it was built, this area was likely a cleared field. Was the wall built through the pool or did the pool appear at a later time? Middleton, MA, April 2007.

010-vp
011-vp

A pool within the sand dunes of Cape Cod National Seashore. This pool is utilized by spadefoot toads, Fowler's toads, and many invertebrates species. Truro, MA, July 2005.

012-vp

Crop circles? Varying water depths due to pool depth and rates of drying sometimes produce pronounced rings of vegetation. Plymouth, MA, July 2005.

016-vp
020-vp
vp-grass-Rowley-PICT0008
022-vp
023-vp-oxbow-on-DeerfieldRiver
Wood Frog

Wood Frog

The wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) has the widest distribution of any frog in North America. They are found as far north as Alaska and into the Arctic Circle, through Canada to the Maritimes and south throught the Great Lakes states through the Appalachians to the coast. They are vernal pool breeders and found at most ephemeral wetlands during breeding season.

Adult wood frog

Adult wood frog

Wood frogs are terrestrial creatures spending most of their lives in moist areas including deciduous and coniferous forests, bogs, and swamps. This is a frog you might encounter quite a distance from water while you are walking in the woods. They are aquatic only as eggs and larvae.

Adult wood frog

Adult wood frog

Adult wood frogs vary in color from a rosey, almost red, color to a very dark brown. They can be identified by the dark mask that runs from the nose through the eye and the white lip stripe. An adult wood frog is about 1.5 to 2.5 inches in length from snout to vent.

Adult wood frog

Adult wood frog

Wood frogs can also be very dark. Yet the eye mask and white upper lip are still visible. Some researchers suggest that males are likely to be dark, particularly in breeding season, and females are likely to be lighter in color.

Wood Frog Chorusing

Wood Frog Chorusing

In spring, wood frogs travel on rainly nights to vernal pools. Male wood frogs float in the pool and make a "quacking" call. Other males join to produce a chorus which is a distinctive sound of spring. Females are attracted to the pool by the chorus.

Wood frogs in amplexus

Wood frogs in amplexus

When a female reaches the pool, she is grabbed by a chorusing male. The male grasps the female in amplexus and waits for her to lay eggs which he fertilizes with his sperm.

Satellite males

Satellite males

Some males, often referred to as satellite males, do not bother to enter the pool and join the chorus. They wait silently near the edge of the pool and grab an approaching female and let her bring both of them to the pool.

Mistakes are made

Mistakes are made

Since males respond to movement when seeking a mate, they sometimes grab animals or objects other than a female wood frog. This excited male is attached to a green frog.

Mating cluster

Mating cluster

Males, when seeking to mate, will grab almost anything that moves in the vernal pool. In some cases, many males will cluster around the same female. The female here is the one with hind legs out to the left and her right forearm over the male on the lower right.

Amphibian egg masses

Amphibian egg masses

A female will produce up to 1500 eggs in one or more masses attached to submerged vegetation. A fresh mass might be the size of a golf ball but the gelatinous material surrounding each egg absorbs water and the mass expands to approximately baseball size in a day or so. The large mass above is a wood frog egg mass. The smaller masses are from Spotted and Jeffersion Salamanders.

Communal egg sites

Communal egg sites

The wood frog egg mass is a cluster of individual eggs. Each egg is surrounded by an individual mass of jelly. Here several masses attached to a piece of vegetation are being lifted from the water. The white eggs to the right are dead, most likely from either not being fertilized or being at the water surface during a freeze.

Wood frog egg mass group

Wood frog egg mass group

Wood frogs lay eggs in large clusters in the best area of the pool for attachments sites, warmth from the sun, and protection from predators. A female will produce up to 1500 eggs in one or more masses. After breeding, the adult frogs leave the pool and return to the forest. They are seldom at the pool for more than two weeks.

Raft of wood frog egg masses

Raft of wood frog egg masses

Some communal clutches are enormous floating rafts of eggs. This raft has over 1200 egg masses and was one of two similar sized rafts in the same pool.

Symbiotic algae in egg mass

Symbiotic algae in egg mass

As wood frog eggs develop, the mass is generally colonized by a symbiotic algae (Oophila amblystomatis). The algae utilizes some of the waste from the developing eggs and provides some oxygen for the embryo. The rate at which the embryos develop is dependent upon how warm they are. Egg masses are near the water surface where the sun heats the dark embryos and their surrounding jelly.

Hatching wood frog larva

Hatching wood frog larva

Depending upon conditions, eggs may hatch in as little as two weeks. The hatchling tadpoles swarm about the egg mass as they absorb the egg yolk and feed on the egg mass itself.

Spent egg mass

Spent egg mass

When all tadpoles have left the egg mass, the empty mass remains until various vernal pool organisms consume it. The symbiotic algae (Oophila amblystomatis) remains These expended egg masses look like floating masses of algae.

Wood frog hatchling

Wood frog hatchling

The hatchling wood frogs have external gills for a few days as the body continues to develop into a swimming larva. They attach themselves to the egg mass or other objects as they develop and feed on the algae.

Wood frog tadpoles grazing

Wood frog tadpoles grazing

The recently hatched tadpoles spend considerable time on plant detritus scraping algae from the surfaces.

Wood frog tadpole (larva)

Wood frog tadpole (larva)

The typical wood frog tadpole begins as a black tadpole but soon becomes brownish with specks of gold and the beginnings of a stripe at the mouth. Tadpoles feed on algae and other plant matter. They also feed on salamander egg masses, toad eggs and dead animal matter in the pool.

Wood frog tadpole underside

Wood frog tadpole underside

Diagnostic characteristics of the wood frog tadpole are the gold flecking on the dorsal side, further flecking on the ventral side and the intestinal coil visible through the transparent skin.

Wood frog mouth parts

Wood frog mouth parts

The wood frog tadpole is also identified by the Labial Tooth Row Formula of 3/4 which means there are three rows of labial teeth above the oral disc and four rows below it.  In this image, the top three rows are hidden under the upper lip (labium) which hides part of the oral disc. The four lower rows are visible.

Wood frog metamorph

Wood frog metamorph

Wood frog tadpoles take about seven to twelve weeks from hatching to completely develop into a juvenile frog. When they have four developed legs, they begin the transition (metamorphosis) into an air breathing, carnivorous, terrestrial frog.

Developed wood frog larvae

Developed wood frog larvae

At times, large numbers of metamorphosing tadpoles come to surface to gulp air as they develop.

Recent wood frog metamorph

Recent wood frog metamorph

Metamorphosis is complete when the tail is completely absorbed by the frog. The small frog leaves the pool and enters the surrounding uplands to feed and develop into an adult. Complete development takes two or more years.

Wood frog juvenile

Wood frog juvenile

Wood frogs forage for invertebrate food including insects, spiders, earthworms, caterpillars, snails and slugs. They spend the winter partially frozen under leaf litter and forest debris. With the warm rains of early spring, they emerge and head to a vernal pool for breeding.

Wood frogs in amplexus

Wood frogs in amplexus

Adult wood frogs breed when 2-5 years old. They may breed for a several years. Their breeding success and survival is dependent upon their vernal pool coninuing to exist. Most wood frogs return to their natal pool to breed. All wood frogs that breed in multiple years, return to the first pool they used whether it is their natal pool or not.

Wood Frog

Wood Frog

The wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) has the widest distribution of any frog in North America. They are found as far north as Alaska and into the Arctic Circle, through Canada to the Maritimes and south throught the Great Lakes states through the Appalachians to the coast. They are vernal pool breeders and found at most ephemeral wetlands during breeding season.

Adult wood frog

Adult wood frog

Wood frogs are terrestrial creatures spending most of their lives in moist areas including deciduous and coniferous forests, bogs, and swamps. This is a frog you might encounter quite a distance from water while you are walking in the woods. They are aquatic only as eggs and larvae.

Adult wood frog

Adult wood frog

Adult wood frogs vary in color from a rosey, almost red, color to a very dark brown. They can be identified by the dark mask that runs from the nose through the eye and the white lip stripe. An adult wood frog is about 1.5 to 2.5 inches in length from snout to vent.

Adult wood frog

Adult wood frog

Wood frogs can also be very dark. Yet the eye mask and white upper lip are still visible. Some researchers suggest that males are likely to be dark, particularly in breeding season, and females are likely to be lighter in color.

Wood Frog Chorusing

Wood Frog Chorusing

In spring, wood frogs travel on rainly nights to vernal pools. Male wood frogs float in the pool and make a "quacking" call. Other males join to produce a chorus which is a distinctive sound of spring. Females are attracted to the pool by the chorus.

Wood frogs in amplexus

Wood frogs in amplexus

When a female reaches the pool, she is grabbed by a chorusing male. The male grasps the female in amplexus and waits for her to lay eggs which he fertilizes with his sperm.

Satellite males

Satellite males

Some males, often referred to as satellite males, do not bother to enter the pool and join the chorus. They wait silently near the edge of the pool and grab an approaching female and let her bring both of them to the pool.

Mistakes are made

Mistakes are made

Since males respond to movement when seeking a mate, they sometimes grab animals or objects other than a female wood frog. This excited male is attached to a green frog.

Mating cluster

Mating cluster

Males, when seeking to mate, will grab almost anything that moves in the vernal pool. In some cases, many males will cluster around the same female. The female here is the one with hind legs out to the left and her right forearm over the male on the lower right.

Amphibian egg masses

Amphibian egg masses

A female will produce up to 1500 eggs in one or more masses attached to submerged vegetation. A fresh mass might be the size of a golf ball but the gelatinous material surrounding each egg absorbs water and the mass expands to approximately baseball size in a day or so. The large mass above is a wood frog egg mass. The smaller masses are from Spotted and Jeffersion Salamanders.

Communal egg sites

Communal egg sites

The wood frog egg mass is a cluster of individual eggs. Each egg is surrounded by an individual mass of jelly. Here several masses attached to a piece of vegetation are being lifted from the water. The white eggs to the right are dead, most likely from either not being fertilized or being at the water surface during a freeze.

Wood frog egg mass group

Wood frog egg mass group

Wood frogs lay eggs in large clusters in the best area of the pool for attachments sites, warmth from the sun, and protection from predators. A female will produce up to 1500 eggs in one or more masses. After breeding, the adult frogs leave the pool and return to the forest. They are seldom at the pool for more than two weeks.

Raft of wood frog egg masses

Raft of wood frog egg masses

Some communal clutches are enormous floating rafts of eggs. This raft has over 1200 egg masses and was one of two similar sized rafts in the same pool.

Symbiotic algae in egg mass

Symbiotic algae in egg mass

As wood frog eggs develop, the mass is generally colonized by a symbiotic algae (Oophila amblystomatis). The algae utilizes some of the waste from the developing eggs and provides some oxygen for the embryo. The rate at which the embryos develop is dependent upon how warm they are. Egg masses are near the water surface where the sun heats the dark embryos and their surrounding jelly.

Hatching wood frog larva

Hatching wood frog larva

Depending upon conditions, eggs may hatch in as little as two weeks. The hatchling tadpoles swarm about the egg mass as they absorb the egg yolk and feed on the egg mass itself.

Spent egg mass

Spent egg mass

When all tadpoles have left the egg mass, the empty mass remains until various vernal pool organisms consume it. The symbiotic algae (Oophila amblystomatis) remains These expended egg masses look like floating masses of algae.

Wood frog hatchling

Wood frog hatchling

The hatchling wood frogs have external gills for a few days as the body continues to develop into a swimming larva. They attach themselves to the egg mass or other objects as they develop and feed on the algae.

Wood frog tadpoles grazing

Wood frog tadpoles grazing

The recently hatched tadpoles spend considerable time on plant detritus scraping algae from the surfaces.

Wood frog tadpole (larva)

Wood frog tadpole (larva)

The typical wood frog tadpole begins as a black tadpole but soon becomes brownish with specks of gold and the beginnings of a stripe at the mouth. Tadpoles feed on algae and other plant matter. They also feed on salamander egg masses, toad eggs and dead animal matter in the pool.

Wood frog tadpole underside

Wood frog tadpole underside

Diagnostic characteristics of the wood frog tadpole are the gold flecking on the dorsal side, further flecking on the ventral side and the intestinal coil visible through the transparent skin.

Wood frog mouth parts

Wood frog mouth parts

The wood frog tadpole is also identified by the Labial Tooth Row Formula of 3/4 which means there are three rows of labial teeth above the oral disc and four rows below it.  In this image, the top three rows are hidden under the upper lip (labium) which hides part of the oral disc. The four lower rows are visible.

Wood frog metamorph

Wood frog metamorph

Wood frog tadpoles take about seven to twelve weeks from hatching to completely develop into a juvenile frog. When they have four developed legs, they begin the transition (metamorphosis) into an air breathing, carnivorous, terrestrial frog.

Developed wood frog larvae

Developed wood frog larvae

At times, large numbers of metamorphosing tadpoles come to surface to gulp air as they develop.

Recent wood frog metamorph

Recent wood frog metamorph

Metamorphosis is complete when the tail is completely absorbed by the frog. The small frog leaves the pool and enters the surrounding uplands to feed and develop into an adult. Complete development takes two or more years.

Wood frog juvenile

Wood frog juvenile

Wood frogs forage for invertebrate food including insects, spiders, earthworms, caterpillars, snails and slugs. They spend the winter partially frozen under leaf litter and forest debris. With the warm rains of early spring, they emerge and head to a vernal pool for breeding.

Wood frogs in amplexus

Wood frogs in amplexus

Adult wood frogs breed when 2-5 years old. They may breed for a several years. Their breeding success and survival is dependent upon their vernal pool coninuing to exist. Most wood frogs return to their natal pool to breed. All wood frogs that breed in multiple years, return to the first pool they used whether it is their natal pool or not.

Wood Frog Natural History